Clarification of commonly used key terms.

Bio-psychosocial approachan approach which, in the fields of consulting, advanced training, therapy and education, takes into account the research results of biology, especially neurobiology (brain research), psychology and the social sciences.

Emotions, affects, feelings: when considered from its Latin root "movere" (move), emotion emphasises the aspect of being moved and "stirred". The word "affect" has its root in the Latin verb "afficere" (turn on, touch) and means the same as emotion. In everyday parlance the word "affect" indicates the strong emotion triggered by a strong stimulus (e.g. cry of pain). In contrast to an affect, the term "feeling" is a weaker form of being moved and "stirred" which is close to thinking and remembering and enables the individual to talk about emotions and affects.

Emotions, feelings, and affects are not a dispensable luxury. They are important for adaptation in everyday private and professional life and are inextricably linked to the mechanisms of coping with life. Pleasant and unpleasant emotions, feelings and affects are intended to repel threats and tap into sources of energy, growth and protection. Affect attunement, affect regulation: in these word combinations the term refers to emotions, feelings and affects; the term affect attunement therefore means the attunement of the emotions, feelings and affects; the term affect regulation also refers to the regulation of emotions, feelings and affects.

Intelligence: the word intelligence has its roots in the Latin verb "intellegere" (inter = between; legere = select) and means "being able to choose between various options that are available". Accordingly, in its original meaning, the word "intelligence" refers to the choices available. Intelligence is high when there are many choices available and intelligence (IQ) is low where the number of choices available is few.

Rational intelligence: the word intelligence initially related only to thinking, the rational field (RQ); here it refers to the various options available to a person to mentally understand and analyse different things, tasks, individuals, situations, events, as well as to make decisions, develop action plans and implement them.

Emotional intelligence:: in recent research the term intelligence is also related to the emotional domain (EQ); here it describes the different options available to a person to perceive, understand and evaluate different individuals, things, tasks, situations, events with positive and negative emotions, feelings, affects. When referring to the emotions, the term intelligence also characterises the different emotional options available to optimise thinking and actions.

Social intelligence: in a similar manner to emotional intelligence, it is also possible to speak of social intelligence (SQ). The term intelligence then refers to the mental and emotional opportunities available to a person to understand (appraise), evaluate and shape (while maintaining their personal integrity) relationships with people, groups, and communities. Shaping the correlation between the environment and organism, the individual and community in a manner which is conducive to development depends not only on rational, but to the same extent on the emotional and social choices available (IQ = RQ+EQ+SQ).

Complexity: denotes the multi-layered nature of the organism, the environment and the correlation between the organism and environment. In order to transform crisis-ridden phases in the correlation into stable phases, it is important that the reduction in complexity by the mind and brain activates regulative structures and functions that have an integrative effect and which relate both to the organism (and its components) and the environment (and its segments), as well as encompassing and constructively influencing the dynamics of the interaction between the organism and its environment.

In the case of appraisals and decision-making, the dynamic complexity takes into account not only the influence of knowledge and logical thinking, but also the influences of the emotional structures and previous emotional experiences in comparable situations. Regulative structures based on dynamic complexity are distinguished from regulative structures which relate exclusively to individual characteristics (symptoms) or groups of characteristics, to specific factors and details, to detail complexity, without taking into account the relationships with other important structures and functions.

Object: in psychology, an object is understood to be the contact person who answers one's own forms of behaviour with their behaviour in order to transform crisis-ridden phases into stable ones. In the relationship with other individuals (objects), basic patterns of the interaction with others develop, as well as the notions of one's own person (i.e. self-perceptions and self-representations) and of the attachment figures (i.e. object perceptions and object representations).

Organism the basic components of human development are the human organism (i.e. the body in the extended sense, with its inner world: the self, the person), the environment (nature and culture), the mind (in the comprehensive, functional sense of soul or psyche) and the brain as the organ of the mind.

Psychoanalysis: psychoanalysis is a theory that goes back to Sigmund Freud and a method of treatment which deals with the effects of unconscious conflicts on feeling, thinking and behaviour. The method of treatment attempts (in the contact between the client and psychoanalyst) to make the client aware of the unconscious experiences causing the conflict. By systematic intervention, an attempt is then made to bring about a solution to the unconscious conflict and develop new patterns of feeling, thinking and behaviour in analysing people, groups, things, and tasks.

Neuropsychoanalysis: at the beginning of the 1990s, an interdisciplinary working group was established on the basis of the initiative of the psychoanalyst Arnold Pfeffer and the neuroscientist James Schwarz. The success of this group led to the formation of numerous similar groups, and finally to the establishment of the "n-psa International Neuro-Psychoanalysis Society". The aim of this interdisciplinary collaboration of the groups and society is the discussion, review and joint development of the research results of both branches of science.

Sociotherapy: the development and stability of individuals depends on their social ties. Bonding experiences stabilise or destabilise the drive, feeling, thought, value, relationship, action and behaviour patterns. The strengthening of individuals (through psychotherapy if applicable) therefore also requires sociotherapeutic interventions. The aim of the sociotherapeutic interventions on a neuropsycho-analytical basis is the stabilisation of the individual through the development of emotional relationships that are in line with the laws of the brain. Accordingly, sociotherapy is a bio-psycho-social therapeutic approach which, in the fields of consulting, advanced training, therapy and education, takes into account the research results of biology, especially neurobiology (brain research), psychology and the social sciences.